Nate Clark

Software Developer


Dependency Injection From First Principles

Jan 11, 2020

If you are starting to learn web development, you have probably run into dependency injection.

If you are working with Spring it might look like this:

class MyClass {
public MyClass(MyDependency myDependency) { ... }

Angular looks almost identical:

class MyClass {
constructor(myDependency: MyDependency) {

Or maybe you are testing in Python with pytest and it looks like this:

def test_user_can_purchase_a_product(client):

Dependency injection comes in a ton of contexts and varieties. In this post I want to explore "What Is Dependency Injection?", "Why Do We Do It?", and "How Do We Do It?".

What Is Dependency Injection?

At its heart, dependency injection is about moving code out of a particular function/class and into an argument to that function/class.

def login(username, password):
if check_credentials(username, password):

It is pretty plain to see that check_credentials is used by login. In other words, login depends on check_credentials. login has other dependencies though. It also depends on username and password. However, there is an important distinction between check_credentials and username/password.

The username and password dependencies are provided as an argument. If I want to change username or password, I call it with different arguments.

The check_credentials dependency is hard-coded inside login. If I want to change check_credentials, I rewrite login. This might be totally fine. You might never want to change it. But if you do, the most natural place would be to accept it as an argument.

def login(username, password, check_credentials):
if check_credentials(username, password):

Now, whenever login gets called, you just provide the appropriate function for check_credentials. login still depends on check_credentials, but it is no longer a hard-coded dependency. Unfortunately, we've now made every call site a little more annoying. Now, every time we call login we have to provide an appropriate check_credentials. We'll talk about making it less annoying in a second, but first let's talk about why we do this at all.

Why Do We Do It?

From my exposure, we do it for three reasons: testing, decoupling, and we have to. I'm certain my perspective is limited, but I'll limit myself to discussing these three reasons.


If you are using some mocking tool to replace a class or function while testing, you are changing that dependency. If that dependency were provided as an argument, you would not need the mocking tool.

from unittest.mock import patch

def test_login_success():
# changing the dependency through a mocking tool
with patch('check_credentials', return_value=True):
login('admin', 'password123')

def test_login_success():
def always_pass(username, password):
return True

# changing the dependency by providing a different argument
login('admin', 'password123', always_pass)

I'm not here to argue for or against mocking, but it is valuable to realize that both examples are mocking. Even though the second example doesn't use any fancy tools to mess with login before it runs, it is still providing a mock implementation. The example where we provide always_pass as an argument just requires less heavy lifting.


I don't want to spend a ton of time on this topic, but I think it is important to acknowledge. The style of programming allowed by dependency injection supports a more loosely coupled architecture. As a proof of concept we can look at our login function. If login has a hard coded dependency on check_credentials, it is coupled to the code inside it. That means login is coupled check_credentials (and its dependencies). So by moving check_credentials into an argument, we move ourselves towards the dependency inversion principle. We are now depending on an interface instead of an implementation. When it is hard coded, we are depending on the specific implementation. When it is an argument we are depending on however we use it. In the case of check_credentials, we are now depending on it being a function with the signature (str, str) -> bool.

We Have To

I think the other most common reason is that your tool of choice makes you. It is hard for me to think of a modern web development framework that doesn't contain some sort of dependency injection solution. Instead of trying to highlight a bunch of examples, I want to give you an idea of what to look for in your framework of choice.

How Do We Do It?

Let's go back to the code that we don't want to write.

def some_function(...):
login(username, password, real_check_credentials)

We don't want to write real_check_credentials all over the place in our application. The good news is that you usually don't have to. Most contexts where you hear people use the term "dependency injection" are working inside a dependency injection container. A dependency injection container is the central piece of machinery that allows for a more pleasant experience with this style of programming. If you see some of the following things, you might be inside a dependency injection container:

Looking at those three clues, we can get a good idea of what must be going on behind the scenes. There must be some registry of dependencies being maintained and provided on demand. The third bullet outlines the trick to making it all work. If you were to construct the object or call the function yourself, you would have to provide the argument. However, if the framework is doing the work it can provide the required dependencies at the appropriate time. This is the dependency injection container at work. You register dependencies, request dependencies, and provide some sort of class or function to be called where that registry is available.


Hopefully this provides a helpful look at the basics of dependency injection. Dependency injection is all over the place, and I remember being disoriented when I first worked with it.

Thanks for reading!